WCM   Wafer Charging Monitors, Inc.

The Wafer Charging Bulletin


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(187 KB) Vol. 6, No. 1 (Summer 2003)
  Automated ChargeMap ready for release!
  Feature Article: Electron-shading effects in plasmas and high-current ion implanters.
  ·  Uniform vs. non-uniform plasmas
  ·  When there is no resist -- sputter pre-cleans
  ·  PFS-equipped high-current ion implanters

(559 KB) Vol. 5, No. 1 (Summer 2002)
  Feature Article:  Sources of Plasma Charging Damage in High Density Etchers
  ·  Non-Uniform Plasma -- top-to-bottom power ratio too low
  ·  Improperly Adjusted Lifter Pins -- yield loss in center of wafer
  ·  Monopolar Electrostatic Clamping -- plasma ignite and ESC sequencing
  ·  Non-Uniform RF in High-Temperature ESC -- dielectric thickness variation
  ·  Non-Uniform RF Due to Large Particle on ESC -- 100-200 um Si particle
  ·  Baffle for Down Stream Etcher -- blocking ions and UV
  UV and Charging During Via Etch Cause EPROM Charge Loss (NBTI mechanism)
  Free Fluorine Involved in Charging Damage in a RF/MW Plasma Asher

(76 KB) Vol. 4, No. 2 (Fall 2001)
  CHARM-2 improves 300 mm tools!
  Feature Article: Guidelines for interpreting CHARM-2 data.
  ·  Approaches to reducing/eliminating charging damage.
  ·  How to compare tools/processes.
  ·  Is your process safe?
  ·  What about UV?
  ·  Process optimization and DOE.

(396 KB) Vol. 4, No. 1 (Summer 2001)
  WCM expands in-house test capability!
  Feature Article: Typical charging patterns and what they mean.
  ·  Systematic pattern of a simple non-uniform plasma.
  ·  Random pattern of an unstable plasma.
  ·  Complex pattern of a multiple charging-event plasma process.
  News from the ECS Semiconductor Technology Conference in Shanghai.
  CHARM-2 application procedures for all kinds of plasma equipment.

(205 KB) Vol. 3, No. 1 (Fall 2000)
  Latest ChargeMap completely automates CHARM-2 data analysis!
  WCM improves turn-around with new in-house test facility.
  New "maximum-response" CHARM-2 measures worst-case charging.
  Electron shading or plasma non-uniformity -- which is the real culprit?
  CHARM-2 procedures for ashing, implant, etching, and deposition.

(49 KB) Vol. 2, No. 2 (Fall 1999)
  Relating CHARM®-2 results to implant and plasma damage
  ·  Effect of test structure -- CHARM®-2 compared to SPIDER-MEM
  ·  Effect of device physics -- N vs. P channel, well vs. substrate, UV
  ·  Effect of evolving device structure at each step in process

(385 KB) Vol. 2, No. 1 (Spring 1999)
    Introducing DamageMap™
    Charging in Oxide Deposition
    More on P2ID'99

(44 KB) Vol. 1, No. 2 (Fall 1998)
    IIT'98 Paper Summaries
    P2ID'98 Paper Summaries

(93 KB) Vol. 1, No. 1 (Spring 1998)
    J-V Plots and Gate Oxide Damage Prediction
    Charging Damage in a Resist Asher

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